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Technology for the Visually Impaired to Enter the Digital World

Various types of generation are to be had to assist the visually impaired input the virtual global. Here you may study extra about the devices that the blind and those with low 香港相親  imaginative and prescient can use to browse the Internet, study enlarged physical text and electronic files, and enter Chinese characters.
Screen-Reading SoftwareScreen readers are software program applications that examine out what’s shown at the laptop screen, including web pages in browsers, emails, word processing documents, spreadsheets and other programs. An introduced benefit is that screen readers encompass shortcut keys that permit visually impaired customers to navigate around web sites with constant systems.
A Braille system and a notebook pc mounted with screen reading software program
A Braille machine and a pocket book computer mounted with screen studying softwareTypes of Screen ReadersThere are several varieties of display readers to be had for the visually impaired.Desktop SoftwareDesktop screen readers are the extra commonplace form, and can be established on personal pc that has audio functionality. The Netshare portal provides hyperlinks to popular display readers, and the brand new version of the Windows Light display reader for Chinese and English text with both speech and Braille output is available at no cost from Retina Hong Kong.
Braille keyboards for humans with visual impairment
Braille keyboards for human beings with visible impairmentMore on the Desktop Screen Reader Software Recommended by means of the Netshare Portal (Available in Chinese only)More on Retina Hong Kong (Available in Chinese only)
Web-based totally SoftwareWeb-based display readers are extra handy whilst get right of entry to to public or more than one computer systems is vital. They are web sites that allow visually impaired readers to load different webpages and pay attention to the contents.The University of Washington within the USA has released such provider, known as WebAnywhere. It is an open supply challenge which permits interested parties to make contributions to its improvement. The carrier is presently in trial run and could read English textual content. Several independent businesses are running at the assist for added languages inclusive of Chinese.This software program is using a technology of including 0.33-birthday party webpages below the website of the net-based software and reading out contents. Although this generation might not be able to deal with all kinds of websites, like GovHK, the internet-based totally display screen reader is a leap forward and affords an opportunity answer for customers. The WebAnywhere internet site can be accessed via the subsequent link.More on the WebAnywhere Service of the University of Washington
Dedicated Software for Mobile Phones and PDAsScreen readers are also to be had for use on cell phones and PDAs. The cellular smartphone variations study out all textual content in each menu, which includes caller ID, neglected calls, numbers entered, SMS messages written and obtained, and so forth. PDA display screen readers consist of maximum of the features to be had for computing device computer systems, plus Braille help. The Netshare portal presents a listing of advocated display readers, which may be accessed via the subsequent hyperlink.Dedicated Screen Reader Software for Mobile Phones and PDAs Recommended with the aid of the Netshare Portal (Available in Chinese simplest)
Screen Magnification SoftwareScreen magnification software program can expand the content material displayed on a pc screen. Users can select the magnification level that high-quality fits their personal desires and luxury. The software can also show website content material in black and white or in monochrome, which allows high contrast for people who have issues differentiating among colors.The software program is to be had in computing device versions for installation on domestic computers, USB pressure variations for transfer between computers and devoted versions for mobile phones and PDAs. The Netshare portal includes guidelines at the software.Screen Magnification Software Recommended by the Netshare Portal (Available in Chinese most effective)
Braille Display DevicesCombined with the usage of screen readers, Braille display gadgets areattached to computer systems to access display content material and output it in a series of raised dots that represent phrases, letters and numbers. Visually impaired customers can then examine the content material with their arms.
Illustration of a Braille sample
Illustration of a Braille patternMost regularly used by blind people, Braille show gadgets also can assist computer users who have low levels of imaginative and prescient however can’t hear display readers. Both webpages and textual content documents may be read in this manner. The Netshare portal includes pointers on Braille show gadgets.Braille Display Devices Recommended by way of the Netshare Portal (Available in Chinese most effective)
Tools that Enlarge Physical Items consisting of Books, Magazines and NewspapersThree structures can expand physical textual content to a size that you are at ease with.Desktop Video MagnifiersDesktop video magnifiers with devoted video display units can help you magnify any text, consisting of in a newspaper, e-book or magazine, to a readable size cozy with special customers.Magnifying Video CamerasAs the use of computing device video magnifiers may be an high priced solution, magnifying video cameras also are available for connection to a computer display, TV screen or through a DVD player to a projection screen. These structures typically consist of a base with the video camera on a swing arm above it.Portable Video MagnifiersAlso available are transportable video magnifiers, the scale of paperback books, which may be utilized in public places, which includes in eating places for studying menus. More statistics on those tools is available via the Netshare portal.Magnifying Tools Recommended by way of the Netshare Portal (Available in Chinese most effective)
Scanners for Turning Physical Text into Electronic TextScanners also can be used to seize photos of bodily text and turn them into digital text. Using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) generation, the textual content can be made geared up for a screen reader, or may be enlarged and displayed on a computer display or TV display screen. Scanners are available commercially and from public IT assets.
Chinese Input Software for the Visually ImpairedFree software program is likewise to be had to assist visually impaired pc customers input Chinese characters. The Easy Dots programme evolved via the Hong Kong Blind Union is to be had for down load freed from fee.

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Mental health benefits of cohabitation and marriage: A longitudinal analysis of Norwegian register data

It is properly mounted that every one-reason mortality is better most of the non-married than the married, and in a few nations increasingly more higher (Kravdal et al. 2018). Marriage is likewise connected to lower mortality from many particular reasons (Franke and Kulu 2018) and higher disorder survival (Kravdal 2013). Advantages with respect to fitness, especially mental health, have been documented too (Umberson et al. 2013). These relationships in all likelihood replicate both causal pathways and uncontrolled joint determinants of marital popularity and health/mortality (Lillard and Panis 1996; Brockmann and Klein 2004).

Over the closing half of century, age at marriage has risen in many countries, along side an growth within the proportions in no way marrying. At the identical time, consensual unions—which have a tendency to be much less stable—have come to be extra not unusual (Sobotka and Toulemon 2008; Sassler and Lichter 2020). We might assume consensual unions to have an effect on health and mortality via the same mechanisms as marriage, despite the fact that possibly now not as strongly. However, comparisons among people who are cohabiting and those who have married—directly or after cohabitation—have proven pretty combined consequences, and the determined differences are hard to interpret because they are partly a end result of selection, just like the differences between formal marital popularity corporations.

The aim of this have a look at is to provide a more certain photograph of the hyperlink among cohabitation, marriage, and intellectual health than in earlier studies. The evaluation is, like some different latest research, based totally on individual fixed-effects fashions. Thus, unobserved time-invariant person characteristics which could affect the selection of residing association in addition to health are managed for. Register statistics for the whole Norwegian population from 2006 to 2019 are used, and the final results variable is the yearly range of consultations with a fashionable practitioner (GP) wherein a mental health condition is one of the mentioned diagnoses. With this type of large records set, it is possible no longer most effective to look at differences in intellectual health among married and cohabiting individuals, but additionally to observe in detail how mental health varies over time, earlier than and after entry into cohabitation or marriage. The analysis is established as follows: First, we describe the developments in mental fitness before cohabitation (when a romantic relationship is installed). This has not been performed previously, even though a few studies have included trends in properly-being before marriage. We distinguish among people who later marry and those who do not. The improvement in intellectual health between entry into cohabitation and marriage, as well as after marriage, is then analysed. Finally, we examine the styles earlier than and after marriages preceded with the aid of cohabitation with those earlier than and after direct marriages (which are less commonplace in recent times). The variations between those varieties of marriages have obtained little interest in earlier fixed-outcomes investigations. We focus largely on first unions and distinguish between marriages that stay intact and people finishing in separation, divorce, or spousal dying. Given the possibility that the fitness consequences of intimate relationships vary via sex (e.G. Simon 2002; Roelfs 2011; Shor et al. 2012a, 2012b), the evaluation is sex stratified.

The Norwegian placing
The trend toward a decrease share married and a better age at marriage has been especially sturdy in Nordic countries however has to a huge volume been spark off in opposition to a rise in consensual unions (Prioux 2006; Sobotka and Toulemon 2008; Sánchez Gassen and Perelli-Harris 2015; Härkönen et al. 2021). The latter are less strong (Liefbroer and Dourleijn, 2006; Poortman and Lyngstad 2007; Musick and Michelmore 2018), and many Nordic couples have youngsters even as dwelling in such unions (Perelli-Harris et al. 2010). In 2017–19, 37 in keeping with cent of Norwegians aged 30–34 years were cohabiting and 37 according to cent were married (Statistics Norway 2021a). The corresponding proportions at age forty five–forty nine have been 21 and 57 in keeping with cent, respectively. In assessment, in 1993–ninety five, 24 in line with cent of 30–34-yr-olds have been cohabiting and fifty three in keeping with cent married, even as at age 45–49, 8 in step with cent have been cohabiting and seventy seven per cent married. Only sixty five per cent of 40–49-year-olds in 2021 had ever married, in place of 92 according to cent in 1986 (Statistics Norway 2021b).

People who perceive the gains from dwelling in a union as particularly small are, of path, also much less possibly to form a union, and if they do, they will prefer an informal one this is less complicated to dissolve and felt to be less of a commitment (Kravdal 1999). Thus, the particularly suggested shift far from marriage in Nordic nations can be a end result of things that make partnership less crucial, such as a generous welfare state (Baran et al. 2014). Another key argument in couples’ choice-making may be whether cohabitation also gives different advantages in comparison with marriage or is as a minimum sincerely not disadvantageous. According to that angle, the located patterns may fit nicely with Nordic cohabitants’ belief of their partnership being nearly the same as marriage (Hiekel et al. 2014), perhaps in part due to the incredibly small distinction in prison rights (Sánchez Gassen and Perelli-Harris 2015). Finally, the normally liberal values inside the area can also have contributed to creating consensual unions commonplace.

If cohabitation is greater much like marriage in Nordic international locations than somewhere else, it could additionally be especially not likely that the married experience a fitness benefit as compared with cohabitants. In aid, Soons and Kalmijn (2009) determined the smallest differences in properly-being among married and cohabiting couples in  相睇公司 Nordic and different international locations wherein cohabitation is common and widely typical.

The current nation of expertise
Marriage, fitness, and mortality
The properly-documented health and survival advantages for the married likely end result in part from various protecting results of getting a partner. For example, there may be monetary benefits due to scale benefits or (greater relevant within the beyond) specialization (Hahn 1993; Ross 1995; Wilmoth and Koso 2002). Spouses also exert manipulate over each different’s behaviour (Lewis and Butterfield 2007), with implications for several life-style factors (Lee et al. 2004; Duncan et al. 2006; Ali and Ajilore 2011; Averett et al. 2013). Additionally, spouses generally offer companionship and practical and emotional support (Ross 1995). This can also make contributions to a healthful lifestyle, similarly to creating it less complicated to recover from ailment. Furthermore, studies has counseled that emotional closeness not best has these types of practical implications however has even more direct physiological effects (Kiecolt-Glaser 2018; Uchino 2018). Another viable advantage from marriage is that a spouse may also help to increase the social network. However, marriage will also be burdening, now not least if the associate is in poor health or the connection first-class is low. The latter would probably weaken the social manage and aid and now have different unfavorable outcomes (Robles et al. 2014).

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How long does someone have to be married to collect Social Security spouse benefits?

To receive a spouse advantage, you usually must were married for at least one non-stop 12 months to the retired or disabled employee on whose profits document you’re claiming advantages.

There are slender exceptions to the one-yr rule. For instance, you could obtain advantages on the record of a brand new partner if, in the month earlier than the month in that you married that person, you had been already receiving or met the necessities to obtain blessings as a spouse (of someone else), divorced spouse, surviving partner, surviving 相睇結婚 divorced spouse, figure or disabled adult infant.

Keep in thoughts
In most cases you have to be at the least 62 to get a partner advantage, but you could qualify if you are more youthful and caring for a kid who’s beneath 16 or disabled and eligible for family advantages in your spouse’s record.
The maximum spouse gain is 50 percentage of your mate’s full retirement advantage. You get that if you claim the partner advantage at your complete retirement age (sixty six and four months for human beings born in 1956 and steadily growing to 67 over the following few years). Spouse blessings are decreased if claimed in advance.

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